キノコ Fungi,Mushrooms,and Toadstools

キノコは英語で、mushroom を使いますが、食用キノコに関してedible fungi という言い方にも出会います。

キノコは、フランス語はchampignon(シャンピニオン)イタリア語はfungo(フンゴ)といいます。

fungi(ファンギ) は、fungus(ファンガス) の複数形です。イタリア語の影響なのでしょう。

食用にしないキノコや毒キノコはtoadstool(トードストール)といいます。

では、日本で目にする食べられるキノコを英語で何ていうのでしょうか。

マツタケ matsutake mushroom
エリンギ king oyster
エノキタケ enoki, velvet shank foot, winter mushroom
キクラゲ wood ear, jew's ear, Judas ear
マッシュルーム champignon, mushroom
ナメコ nameko mushroom
マイタケ Hen of the woods
ヒラタケ oyster mushroom
シイタケ shiitake, golden oak mushroom

キノコ狩りは go gathering mushroom またはMushroom Picking  といいます。 

イタリアではキノコ狩りが盛んのようです。キノコ狩りで毒キノコにあたる人が年間4万人ほどいるとのことで、キノコ狩りの免許の話が
ネットに出ていました。


Mushroom Picking in Italy

Italy's fields and forests have a wide variety of edible mushrooms. But before heading out to pick them it is essential to have a mushrooming licence. Find out how to get the licence and what mushrooms you can expect to find in the Lazio provinces.
Rain and sunshine are the perfect combination for the growth of mushrooms, which means that summer and autumn each year are mushroom seasons in Italy.

Mushrooms are picked in many different areas and play an important part in Italian cuisine. They are eaten in many different ways: together with meat, game or poultry; used as a filling in ravioli; as part of a pasta or risotto dish; in soups or to make thick spreading creams.

When preserved in olive oil, mushrooms are also served as a starter, together with other antipasti. They may also be dehydrated - this is mostly the case for ceps (funghi porcini) - sold in little sachets and then rehydrated before use. And the white truffle (tartufo bianco) from Alba in the Piedmont region; a truffle is essentially a fungus that grows underground while a mushroom is an above ground fungus.

Mushrooming Licences
Mushroom picking is treated as a hobby by many people and in order to regulate this, a law was established on a national level, which is then adapted locally in each region.

A license (tesserino) is required to pick mushrooms everywhere in Italy. In some areas, this license will be delivered once the person has attended a basic course and passed a test; in other regions the license is given without conditions.

The license can be bought from the Mountain Community (comunità montane), the Consortium of Management of Parks (consorzio di gestione dei parchi), the Province (provincia) or the City (il comune).

Each region or province has its own regulations, and also decides on a calendar (days when it is authorised to pick mushrooms and days during which mushroom picking is prohibited), as well as the quantity of mushrooms allowed per person (usually two or three kilograms per day per person). In some areas, there might be additional specific restrictions applying to certain species of mushrooms.

Licenses in the Lazio Region
In the Lazio region, the license (tesserino regionale di autorizzazione alla raccolta) is issued to people over the age of 14 who have attended a course. The course is open to residents (it is held in Italian only).

Following a law of 29 April 2006, people over the age of 65 are now exempt from paying for a license.

The request for the license is downloadable; the form should be filled in and posted: Click here (PDF)
A tax stamp to be enclosed with the form
Post to: Alla Provincia di Roma
Servizio Caccia e Pesca
Via Nomentana n.54
00161 Rome
Licences must be renewed annually (there is a fee) and payment can be made directly into the account:

Account number: c.c.p. 37716792
Name: Amministrazione Provinciale Roma (mention: rinnovo annuale permesso di raccolta funghi)
Mushroom picking
In the Lazio region and the province of Rieti, mushrooms may be picked four days per week: Tuesday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday.

Mushrooms most commonly found are: ceps (funghi porcini), cultivated mushrooms (i prataoili), mushrooms called "ovules" because of their shape (ovuli), mushrooms called pancakes because of their shape (galletti), pinaroli and mazze di Camburo. These are found everywhere in the surrounding woods and mountains.

To see pictures of these: Click here
Regional contacts
Provincia di Roma, Ufficio Caccia, Pesca e Funghi (Province of Rome, Office of Hunting, Fishing and Mushrooms)
At: Via Nomentana 54, 00161 Rome
Tel: 06 67668740
Fax: 06 67668738
Safety guidelines
Each year about 40,000 people suffer from mushroom poisoning in Italy.

There are about 300 different types of non-edible mushrooms in Europe. Eating them can cause problems such as digestive discomfort (nausea, diarrhoea) for a limited period of time or more serious ailments such as convulsions, tachycardia or kidney infection.

In order to avoid these problems, the sanitation authorities (Unione Nazionale del Personale Ispettivo Sanitario d’Italia) offer the following advice:

never pick mushrooms in a polluted environment, close to a highway or a rubbish dump
do not pick up mushrooms just for the sake of it
put mushrooms in a wicker basket
if unsure about the safety of a mushroom, do not mix it in the same basket with ones that are certainly safe
get advice from a health professional; the staff of a local health department (ASL Agenzia Sanitaria Locale) will be in a position to provide free advice on the mushrooms collected
In case of poisoning, call or go to the Emergency Service (Pronto Soccorso). If possible, take some of the mushrooms or the remains of the dish eaten. Never try to self-cure, do not take any drugs, do not attempt to vomit.

Further Information
Micologi Associati (in Italian)




edible fungi キノコ

本 [今日の記事]
Any of a number of plants that lack chlorophyll and that feed on organic matter. Common fungi include yeasts, molds, and mushrooms. Some are beneficial, but others are the cause of plant diseases and many are poisonous to humans.

[出典]Dictionary for Gardeners

本 [単語チェック!]
chlorophyll:葉緑素、クロロフィル
feed:供給する
organic matter:有機物
Common fungi:fungiはfungusの複数形
yeast:酵母菌
mold:カビ、糸状菌
poisonous:有害な


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